Stem cell markers, including NANOG, have been implicated in various cancers; however, the functional contribution of NANOG to cancer pathogenesis has remained unclear.
Researchers show that NANOG is induced by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling via phosphorylation of E2F1 and that downregulation of Nanog slows down hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression induced by alcohol western diet and hepatitis C virus protein in mice.
NANOG ChIP-seq analyses reveal that NANOG regulates the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways required to maintain tumor-initiating stem-like cells (TICs).
NANOG represses mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes, as well as ROS generation, and activates fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to support TIC self-renewal and drug resistance.
Restoration of OXPHOS activity and inhibition of FAO renders TICs susceptible to a standard care chemotherapy drug for HCC, sorafenib.
This study provides insights into the mechanisms of NANOG-mediated generation of TICs, tumorigenesis, and chemoresistance through reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism.