Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin receptor critical in anti-fungal immunity, but Dectin-1 has not been linked to regulation of sterile inflammation or oncogenesis.
Researchers found that Dectin-1 expression is upregulated in hepatic fibrosis and liver cancer. However, Dectin-1 deletion exacerbates liver fibro-inflammatory disease and accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis.
Mechanistically, authors found that Dectin-1 protects against chronic liver disease by suppressing TLR4 signaling in hepatic inflammatory and stellate cells. Accordingly, Dectin-1–/– mice exhibited augmented cytokine production and reduced survival in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated sepsis, whereas Dectin-1 activation was protective.
The authors showed that Dectin-1 inhibits TLR4 signaling by mitigating TLR4 and CD14 expression, which are regulated by Dectin-1-dependent macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) expression.
This study suggests that Dectin-1 is an attractive target for experimental therapeutics in hepatic fibrosis and neoplastic transformation. More broadly, the work deciphers critical cross-talk between pattern recognition receptors and implicates a role for Dectin-1 in suppression of sterile inflammation, inflammation-induced oncogenesis, and LPS-mediated sepsis.