An elaborate metabolic response to fasting is orchestrated by the liver and is heavily reliant on transcriptional regulation.
In response to hormones (glucagon, glucocorticoids) many transcription factors (TFs) are activated and regulate various genes involved in metabolic pathways aimed at restoring homeostasis: gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and amino acid shuttling.
Authors summarize recent discoveries regarding fasting-related TFs with an emphasis on genome-wide binding patterns. Collectively, the findings they discuss reveal a large degree of cooperation between TFs during fasting that occurs at motif-rich DNA sites bound by a combination of TFs.
These new findings implicate transcriptional and chromatin regulation as major determinants of the response to fasting and unravels the complex, multi-TF nature of this response.