The blood circulation to neurons is affected due to Ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, stimulation of the pathophysiological responses i.e. mitochondrial death pathways, protein misfolding, apoptosis, pyroptosis, necrosis, autophagy, mitophagy, ferritinophagy, excitotoxicity, free radicals release, and inflammation.
Besides neuronal cell loss, damage to and loss of astrocytes as well as injury to white matter contributes also to cerebral injury. The core problem in stroke is the loss of neuronal cells which makes recovery difficult or even not possible in the late states.
Novel treatment preferences in stroke involves restoration of blood flow control and the applicability of treatments is restricted due to a limited bioactive time window of thrombolytic agents. However, if the acute time window is exceeded, neuronal loss starts due to the activation of cell death pathways.
The review focuses on the recent updates in our knowledge about cellular death mechanisms caused by the loss of neuronal cells and astrocytes, damage to white matter. Ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are discussed in this review in relation to novel molecular, cellular treatment alternatives and cellular death mechanisms.
Cell death mechanisms in stroke and treatment options
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