Researchers focused on injury to cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - the crucial network of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
Authors show that genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition are enriched in repair cells, and they identify several long non-coding RNAs in Schwann cells. Authors demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor C-JUN regulates the expression of certain micro RNAs in repair Schwann cells, in particular miR-21 and miR-34.
Surprisingly, unlike during development, changes in CpG methylation are limited in injury, restricted to specific locations, such as enhancer regions of Schwann cell-specific genes (e.g., Nedd4l), and close to local enrichment of AP-1 motifs. These genetic and epigenomic changes broaden our mechanistic understanding of the formation of repair Schwann cell during peripheral nervous system tissue repair.