Inside our bones there is fat. Diabetes increases the amount of this marrow fat.
The study, published in the journal Endocrinology shows how some diabetes drug like rosiglitazone, which is sold under the brand name Avandia substantially increase bone fat and thus the risk of bone fractures.
The studyalso shows that exercise can decrease the volume of bone fat caused by high doses of the diabetes drug.
Rosiglitazone affects bone fat by enhancing a critical transcription factor called PPAR - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - which regulates the expression of specific genes in the nuclei of cells.
Essentially, rosiglitazone takes glucose out of blood to lower blood sugar and treat diabetes. But that glucose is then packaged into lipid droplets - fat. Other researchers showed that some of that fat is stored in tissue, such as belly fat or fat in the bones as shown in this study.
Avandia fell out of favor about a decade ago because of heart-related side effects. Physicians can still prescribe the drug, but it isn't as popular as it once was. Its cousin pioglitazone is also still available and has been shown to cause fewer heart-related side effects, but it also isn't used as a first or second-line drug to treat diabetes.