Mitochondrial fission required for neurogenesis!

Mitochondrial fission required for neurogenesis!


Mitochondria are small organelles that provide the energy critical for each cell in our body, in particular in the high fuel-consuming brain. In Science, a research team finds that mitochondria also regulate a key event during brain development: how neural stem cells become nerve cells. Mitochondria influence this cell fate switch during a precise period that is twice as long in humans compared to mice. The seminal findings highlight an unexpected function for mitochondria that may help explain how humans developed a bigger brain during evolution, and how mitochondrial defects lead to neurodevelopmental diseases.

Our brains are made up of billions of incredibly diverse neurons. They first arise in the developing brain when stem cells stop self-renewing and differentiate into a particular type of neuron. This process, called neurogenesis, is precisely regulated to give rise to the enormous complex structure that is our brain. It is thought that small differences in the way neural stem cells generate neurons are at the origin of the dramatic increase in the size and complexity of our brain.

The team explored whether and how mitochondrial remodeling is coupled with neuronal fate commitment during neurogenesis. "Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, that can join together (fusion) or split up (fission), and we know these dynamics are associated with fate changes in various types of stem cells," says the senior author.

The authors developed a new method to watch mitochondria in great detail as the neural stem cells are 'caught in the act' to become neurons. "We found that shortly after stem cells divide, the mitochondria in daughter cells destined to self-renew will fuse, while those in daughter cells that become neurons show high levels of fission instead," says the author.

But this was not just a coincidence: indeed, the researchers could show that increased mitochondrial fission in fact promotes differentiation to a neuronal fate, while mitochondrial fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells towards self-renewal.

So mitochondrial dynamics are important to become a neuron--but there is more. "We found that the influence of mitochondrial dynamics on cell fate choice is limited to a very specific time window, right after cell division," says, a PhD student. "Interestingly, the restricted time window is twice as long in humans compared to mice."

"Previous findings were primarily focused on fate decision of neural stem cells before they divide, but our data reveal that cell fate can be influenced for a much longer period, even after neural stem cell division," says the senior author. This may have interesting implications in the emerging field of cell reprogramming, where scientists try to convert non-neuronal cells directly in neuronal cells for therapeutic purposes for instance.

"Since this period of plasticity is much longer in human cells compared to mouse cells, it is tempting to speculate that it contributes to the increased self-renewal capacity of human progenitor cells, and thus to the uniquely developed brain and cognitive abilities of our species. It is fascinating to think that mitochondria, small organelles that have evolved in cells more than a billion years ago, might have contributed to the recent evolution of the human brain."

https://vib.be/news/becoming-nerve-cell-timing-essence

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6505/858

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